Faraway, So Close!

Carolina Jiménez

Boersianer-Diagram-negativo

Börsianer / The Operators, diagram – Mario Asef © 2009

Mario Asef’s first studio visit with Node’s resident curators was, for me, one of the most motivating
moments of these ultimate months. It was the last studio visit of a long rainy Berlin day. The eight
of us were exhausted and immediately ‘occupied’ the green carpet of Mario’s studio. What could
have been an awkward meeting (because of our tiredness), instantly turned into an extraordinarily
appealing talk. Every piece of work he showed us led to a conversation about several topics,
sometimes related to art, sometimes to philosophy, politics or social relations. When the visit
finished most of us felt the need to somehow try to work with him. We wanted “more Asef”.
For Faraway, So Close! we selected three pieces from Mario Asef’s video series History is now:
Börsianer/The Operators, Man’s on Moon, and Revolution after Revolution.
In his videos, Asef brings us back to the concept of intra-history, introduced in 1895 by the Spanish
philosopher Miguel de Unamuno in his book En torno al casticismo or to the most recent vision of
micro-history by the Italian Carlo Ginzburg. For Asef, history should be interested in the routes
whose principle leading roles are played by its peripheral actors; that is to say, the paths followed by
those men who make history in an unconscious manner, by those who do not aspire to the title of
heroes. The historical event is not the monumental fresco that encourages the mythification of
politicians, military men and priests, the traditional heroes of history… Mario Asef decodes these
concepts, recovering “micro-historical moments” (as he points out) in order to reveal the present as
historically significant.
Börsianer/The Operators juxtaposes the apparently sterile composure of the Frankfurt Stock
Exchange with the life of homeless people from the suburbs of the city. What at first sight could be
regarded as two antagonistic worlds become the two sides of the same instinct of survival. Abstract
values versus reality? Civilized world versus wilderness? Every downturn of the financial market
becomes crucial to our lives, as nature is experienced as an all-embracing fact and dictator of
reality…like the bucolic backdrop shown through the glass of an aquarium.

Skizze

man’s on moon, diagram – Mario Asef © 2006

Man’s on Moon looks back to 1969, when Commander Neil Armstrong became the first man on the
moon. This scene, broadcasted to every television of the Western world, incarnated the faith of our
civilization in technology and science during the Cold War era. In the same year, one of the most
feared serial killers of America, Charles Manson, was arrested. His arrest marked the milestone of
the end of the hippie-era, the end of Martin Luther King’s dream… In Man’s on Moon, Asef cuts
together sequences from the Apollo 17 Mission and audio extracts from Charles Manson interviews,
reflecting on the social dynamics that lead to an ontological discussion of truth and reality.
In the words of Asef, “when a staged revolution is part of a country’s historical reality it shapes the
direction of everyday life”. Filmed in three Romanian towns (Sibiu, Pitesti and Bucharest),
Revolution after Revolution examines how advertising strategies of the post-Communist era are
digested as part of Romanians’ everyday lives. The modern architecture of the sixties and its dead
ideology forms the background where citizens become actors (or heroes?) and revolution turns into
allegory.

revol-groß

Revolution after Revolution, video still – Mario Asef © 2006

The illusion of security

“We are not content with negative obedience, nor even with the most abject submission. When finally you surrender to us, it must be of your own free will. We do not destroy the heretic because he resists us; so long as he resists us we never destroy him. We convert him, we capture his inner mind, we reshape him. We burn all evil and all illusion out of him; we bring him over to our side, not in appearance, but genuinely, heart and soul. We make him one of ourselves before we kill him. It is intolerable to us that an erroneous thought should exist anywhere in the world, however secret and powerless it may be. Even in the instance of death we cannot permit any deviation… we make the brain perfect before we blow it out.”
George Orwell, 1984

Priorities seem clear: first learn, then understand, and finally accept. The whole purpose here is not repetitive or blind obedience but disciplined and controlled minds… George Orwell could not anticipate the economic globalization and the sophistication of information technology in the Western world, but he formed the basis for understanding some of the most serious problems we face today.
Living in a contemporary world means to be surrounded by a multiplicity of electronic devices that gradually shape new borders of our personality. We expand and consider our private space to be inside our iPhones, computers and mailboxes. This unreal and imaginary possession of information can lead to manipulations, performed not only at an individual level. In particular, the lack of corporate and governmental transparency has been a topic of much controversy in recent years, yet the only tool for encouraging greater openness is the slow, tedious process of policy reform.
The Transparency Grenade by Julian Oliver for Studio Weise 7 was the central pivot on which the exhibition in the Fichte-Bunker turned around. It represented two actions: firstly, the invention and construction of an electronic device, and secondly, a situation. The Grenade itself was a replica of Soviet F1 Hand Grenade with a different mechanism of destruction, equipped with a tiny computer, microphone and powerful wireless antenna. It was also a situation, because it made the viewer directly responsible for pulling the ripcord to detonate the Grenade in order to unmask the decision-making processes of any corporate or Governmental Institution. Email fragments, HTML pages, images will be revealed, reminding the occasional user of his weaknesses and strengths. As stated by Michel Foucault, the individual is a part of the power structure’s cogs and secures it with his own attitudes and behaviors. However, and it may seem contradictory, this power (as read in George Orwell’s1984) is omnipresent and omniscient, a power that is constantly being apprehended, but which never answers. State institutions are mechanisms that seem to obey their own laws and rules, they are bureaucratic labyrinths completely unknown by us. Thus, we find depersonalized individuals facing an apparatus against which there is no way to oppose. Numerous references were forwarded about this in Faraway, So Close! by Argentinean artist Mario Asef, especially in the video piece Börsianer / The Operators, which juxtaposed the apparently sterile composure of the Frankfurt Stock Exchange with the life of homeless people from the suburbs of the city. What at first sight could be regarded as two antithetical worlds became the two sides of the same reality. Every downturn of the financial markets becomes crucial in our own lives…
The viewer inside the Fichte-Bunker was confronted with a dystopic reality, a world not desirable, but conceivable. John Stuart Mill coined in the last years of the nineteenth century the term “dystopia” to refer to an unwanted society, opposed to utopia. Mill described an oppressive and closed-on-itself society, usually under an authoritarian government, but presented to its citizens as a utopia. George Orwell’s 1984 was one of the most refined examples of dystopia. It insisted, in a very persuasive way, on the power of technology as a basic tool for social control and the end of privacy. Orwell portrayed a society that to survive, created a perverse, permanent monitoring system from which originated an increasingly imperceptible but ever-present control, a subtle and not clearly coercive method that left citizens with the permanent doubt of whether they were being watched. It is through the uncertainty of not knowing how to maintain the subordination of being under surveillance, through a large and always-on screen, receiving and transmitting information, that individuals were handcuffed by their actions. All this, centralized by the everpresent Ministry of Truth, which was a pyramidal structure of white concrete over three hundred meters high. The Ministry of Truth acted as a vast Jeremy Bentham style panopticon that distinguished, watched and controlled all of what happened in that society.
According to Zygmunt Bauman, uncertainty about the future, the fragility of our social position and the anxiety of our own existence are persistent elements of our society. Therefore, one of the basic actions of human beings has been to preserve the order and to ensure its durability from incursions coming from the outside: an “outside” characterized by disorder and insecurity; an exterior that, in each historical moment has had different characteristics and traits, but always an enemy, an enemy that has always been the “other”. Against this “other”, that represents the fragility and the precariousness of daily life, all societies have been provided with multiple defensive tricks and tools that allow us to preserve, keep the acquired and make it our own. In this way, any risk must be eliminated in order to procure a comfortable place in a world that shows itself as threatening and hazardous. Uncertainty and confusion have increased with the rapid changes in recent decades of new information technologies and globalization. Cities, urban areas and transport are no longer safe places and have become a major cause of worry and insecurity. Now spatial structures conceived to isolate, exclude, reject, resist, camouflage, and absorb have been encouraged.
The need and desire to feel safe in today’s world has become a handy justification for the implementation of measures that threaten the foundations of democracy and social life. It is odd that cities had never before counted on so many security measures, but never before the feeling of insecurity has been so present. Agreements have been made, according to city planner Peter Marcuse , in order to promote the physical 1 “bunkerization” of space (controlled indoors, such as shopping malls or office buildings, containing within them all the facilities necessary to
work, eat or relax) up to the social “bunkerization” of all democratic activity (the limitation of movement, freedom and action, the decline in social and political participation, the growth of exclusion…). This creates new sociopolitical realities where security is exchanged for a restriction of freedoms. Power needs a fearful, insecure and vulnerable society. To keep it, people have to be submissive and in this way consolidate the power’s efficiency. However, we cannot forget that the expression of power is becoming less and less visible, and therefore its influence is difficult to recognize, to anticipate and bear up. The exercise of power is gradually more elusive and insidious, it is everywhere and nowhere, it is ubiquitous, absent, invisible… To this wicked and endless game, that creates fear and creates, at the same time, many and various systems to control it, also referred Faraway, So Close!.
Carolina Jiménez

1) Peter Marcuse, After the World Trade Center. Cuadernos de arquitectura y urbanismo, Barcelona. 2002

www.faraway-so-close.org

The Author

Carolina Jiménez, (Madrid, 1983). Journalist and cultural manager. Lives and works in Berlin. As a political journalist, she has worked in Spanish media like Cadena SER, Agencia EFE and Temas magazines. In the cultural sector she collaborated with contemporary art centers such as Matadero Madrid or La Casa Encendida in Spain. In 2012 he moved to Berlin after being selected to participate in the residency for curators of Node Center for Curatorial Studies. In Berlin she has curated the exhibitions Faraway, So Close! at Fichte-Bunker, We Can Draw It in GlogauAir and Coversation With Alice in Altes Finanzamt. He has been coordinator and manager of SAVVY Contemporary, award for best independent space Projekträume 2013  by the Senate of Berlin (Berliner Senat). She is currently in charge of the communication at Node Center for Curatorial Studies-Berlin.

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El Cerebro Avizor

Sobre vigilancia y la visualización de lo invisible

Pyknolepsia 25/01

Pyknolepria 25/01, installation view – Mario Asef © 2004

A)

La Epilepsia es una enfermedad crónica caracterizada por trastornos neurológicos y una predisposición en el cerebro para generar convulsiones recurrentes que suelen dar lugar a consecuencias neurobiológicas, cognitivas y psicológicas. Estas convulsiones se caracterizan por una actividad neuronal anormal y excesiva o bien sincrónica que provoca un sobreestímulo y saturación de las neuronas encargadas de decodificar las señales perceptivas y reacciones motoras paralizándolas. Durante un ataque epiléptico las neuronas – cada tipo de epilepsia se concentra en una región distinta del cerebro – se ven bombardeadas por una enorme ‘tormenta eléctrica’ que sumerge al paciente en un estado de inconciencia acompañado de fuertes contracciones musculares. Los hombres de la antigüedad tomaban a la epilepsia por una manifestación divina. Cuanto mayor sea número de estímulos que ingresen a nuestras neuronas menor será el nivel de captación de nuestro entorno. Este número está directamente asociado a la velocidad de captación y decodificación de estímulos tanto perceptivos como motores en nuestro cerebro. Es decir que los límites de la percepción están ajustados a una cantidad armónica de las reacciones químicas que se dan en el cerebro en estado de vigilia normal y que nos permiten apreciar y movernos en el mundo de la forma en que normalmente lo hacemos. De este modo la Epilepsia vendría a ser un estado repentino de saturación físico-mental producido por una especie de sobre-sensibilidad aguda que nos lleva a una ausencia u oscuridad momentánea.

a)

El dromólogo francés Paul Virilio se refiere en su libro Estetique de la disparition (Paris 1980) a esta enfermedad en relación al desarrollo técnico cinematográfico. Dándole a la cámara cinematográfica el lugar de una prótesis que ayuda a cubrir los déficits de nuestra percepción prolongando así las funciones de nuestros órganos visuales. La función que ésta vendría a cumplir sería la de „alargar“ el tiempo de percepción haciendo posible la visualización de fenómenos relacionados con el movimiento. El desarrollo de las prótesis perceptivas se extiende pasando por los sistemas de cámaras de vigilancia hasta llegar a la actual nanoscopía y la fotografía espacial. Desde este punto de partida resulta muy interesante enfocar esta información hacia, lo que podríamos llamar, una ‘utopía de la visión total’. La visión de una humanidad que crea aparatos-prótesis para huir de la oscuridad epiléptica, para alcanzar la visualización completa del universo.

Pyknolepsia 25/01

Pyknolepria 25/01, photography, cibachrom on alu-dibond 45 x 30cm – Mario Asef © 2004

B)

Georg Cantor (1845 – 1918) estableció un número que representa una cantidad sobre-previsible. Este número fue denominado con la primera letra del alfabeto hebreo ℵ (Aleph) y es alcanzado por cualquier número mayor que uno elevado a la n, éste así mismo, es considerado como sinónimo de infinito. Dado que todo número elevado a la ℵ da como resultado un número infinito mayor que el número infinito ℵ y aún ℵ elevado a la ℵ da como resultado ℵ1 – un número infinitamente mayor que el número infinito anterior – es preciso determinar distintas clases de infinitos que a su vez serán también infinitas (ℵ, ℵ1, ℵ2, ℵ3, ℵ4, … ∞). En este fenómeno se basa la paradoja de la Mengenlehre y la teoría de la continuidad. Teoría que aún no a sido comprobada pues tanto su comprobación como su negación son correctas y a la vez falsas. Algunos investigadores comparten la opinión de que precisamente ésta paradoja hizo enfermar psíquicamente a los hombres de ciencia que se ocupaban de resolverla. El caso más famoso fue el del mismo Georg Cantor como así también el de Kurt Gödel.

b)

La teoría de la continuidad establece un sistema de desarrollo ad infinitum que la aparta de la idea de la naturaleza tal y como la vivimos cotidianamente. Es un sistema que responde a sus propias normas. Normas que aparentemente estarían solo al alcance y prefijadas por un ser supremo. El infinito fue en la antigüedad un sinónimo de dios (la escuela pitagórica, la secta de los cabalistas, etc.).

Las nuevas tecnologías nos brindan nuevas perspectivas del infinito relacionadas con la estética del Loop, el Clon y la reversibilidad del tiempo. Estas ofrecen una nueva ilusión basada en la idea matemática de la continuidad que confronta al espectador con un nuevo mundo llamado Virtual en el cual es posible morir infinitas veces y vivir infinitas veces el mismo momento o quizás cada vez un momento diferente.

Pyknolepsia 25/01

Pyknolepria 25/01, photography, cibachrom on alu-dibond 45 x 30cm – Mario Asef © 2004

C)

Jorge Luis Borges (1899 – 1986) describe en su cuento El Aleph una esquina de una escalera en el sótano de una casa antigua en la calle Garay de Buenos Aires en el cual, desde un determinado punto del mismo que obliga al observador a acostarse sobre el piso y mantener una postura inusual, se puede observar un Aleph. Borges lo define como el punto donde se concentran todos los puntos del orbe. En él, Borges ve toda la multiplicidad de elementos que conforman el mundo. Ve cada uno de sus detalles con exagerada nitidez sin que se sobrepongan el uno con el otro y todos al mismo tiempo vistos desde todos los ángulos. La plétora perceptiva, la utópica realización contra-epiléptica.

c)

No creo casual el hecho de que Borges haya elegido una esquina en un espacio arquitectónico para colocar su Aleph. La esquina representa la abstracción matemática del espacio real en el espacio tridimensional euclidiano. El universo descrito por Borges es real, la estructura del espacio en el que se despliega es matemática. La visión es matemática. Tan matemática como los 24 cuadros por segundo del tiempo fílmico y Tan misteriosa e inalcanzable como el cuadro 25 de ese mismo segundo, que se hace ver a sus anchas pero nadie es capas de percibirlo a simple vista.

La plétora perceptiva es la negación de la percepción. Ahí donde nuestros sentidos no llegan se despliega un espacio de proyección mental que respalda la creación de prótesis perceptivas que complementen nuestro ‘equipamiento’ perceptivo. La visión que Borges tuvo del Aleph es el sueño del control total de las clases dirigentes. La victoria sobre la epilepsia.

La pantalla en negro, el sueño en negro, la visión de la oscuridad representarían entonces mucho más que la ausencia de imágenes, la sobre afluencia de información sensitiva.

Pyknolepsia 25/01

Pyknolepria 25/01, photography, cibachrom on alu-dibond 45 x 30cm – Mario Asef © 2004